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Man and Mollusc has a new venture: Man and Mollusc Books!

"Sammy's Adventure"

I'm proud to announce my first book in a proposed series of children's books; "Sammy's Adventure".

For more story details and the costs of purchasing "Sammy's Adventure" please go to the promotional flyer. Some translations are also available now. Please inquire: Avril

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"Offshore Shells of Southern Africa"
by Douw G. Steyn & Markus Lussi.
More information about this softcover book of 294 pages with dorsal and ventral photos of 754 species of Gastropods can be seen on our website


TREASURE OF RUSSIAN SHELLS, VOL. 7. ORCULOIDEA (Orculidae, Strobilopsidae). By Roman Egorov & Kristine Greke, 2005. 290x207, 2 tabs., 3 plates, 130 b/w figs. (drawings and photo), 22 maps, index, 61 pages. In English. ISSN 1025 2517.

Representatives of 2 families with 10 genera contained 30 species with some subspecies are known for territory of Russia and adjacent countries (former USSR). As a result of studying of research collection and literature data authors supplemented data on ecology and distribution of the representatives of these families, and specified diagnoses and taxonomic position of some rare and little-known species.

Anatomical characters of genitalia for most species are given. Systematic position and synonymy for some species was revised.

It is established, that Leiostyla nemethi Hausdorf, 1996 belongs to the genus Euxinolauria and probably, is the representative of new subgenus. Also it is established, that Leiostyla adolfi Pokryszko, 1991 is junior synonym of Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) p. paulinae (Lindholm, 1913). Systematic position of Orculella (?) pfeiferi Hausdorf, 1996 is discussed.

Appendix contains the check-list of fossil forms of Orculoidea from the territory former the USSR. List of bibliography contains 132 references.

List of described and illustrated species:

Pilorcula aspinosa Hausdorf, 1996
Pilorcula pusilla Hausdorf, 1996
Pilorcula t. trifilaris (Mousson, 1863)
Pilorcula trifilaris longior Hausdorf, 1996
Pilorcula trifilaris quadrifilaris (Rosen, 1905)
Orculella b. bulgarica (Hesse, 1915)
Orculella r. ruderalis Akramovski, 1947
Orculella pfeiferi Hausdorf, 1996
Schileykula batumensis (Retowski, 1889)
Schileykula kaznakovi (Rosen, 1914)
Schileykula trapezensis (Stojaspal, 1981)
Orcula dolium (Draparnaud, 1801)
Sphyradium doliolum (Brugui?re, 1792)
Pagodulina (Pagodulina) pagodula (Des Moulins, 1830)
Pagodulina (Crystallifera) lederi (O.Boettger, 1886)
Euxinolauria (Matschachelia) rectidentata Schileyko, 1975
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) tenuimarginata (Pilsbry, 1933)
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) zonifera (Pilsbry, 1934)
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) p. paulinae (Lindholm, 1913)
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) caucasica (L.Pfeiffer, 1857)
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) sinangula Schileyko, 1975
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) superstructa (Mousson, 1876)
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) honesta Suvorov, Schileyko, 1991
Euxinolauria (Caucasipupa) glomerosa Suvorov, Schileyko, 1991
Euxinolauria (Euxinolauria) pulchra (Retowski, 1883)
Euxinolauria (Euxinolauria) silicea Schileyko, 1975
Euxinolauria (Euxinolauria) vitrea (Schileyko, 1988)
Euxinolauria (Neolauria) mica Schileyko, 1998
Euxinolauria (subgen. indet.) nemethi Hausdorf, 1996
Lauria cylindracea (Da Costa, 1778)
Argna bielzi (Rossmaessler, 1859)
Eostrobilops coreanus (Pilsbry, 1927)

Retail price: $20.00 + postage: surface mail $3.00; air mail $5.00
Orders send to:
Roman V. Egorov
3rd Vladimirskaya str., 16-24
111401 Moscow RUSSIA




Key words: mollusks, chitons, gastropods, fauna, taxonomy, Ukraine.

Anistratenko V. V., Anistratenko 0. Yu., 2001. Fauna Ukraine: In 40 vol. Vol. 29: Mollusca. Fasc. 1. B. 1: Class Polyplacophora or Chitons, Class Gastropoda — Cyclobranchia, Scutibranchia and Pectinibranchia (part) / — Kyiv : "Veles". hard-bound; 240 p., 143 figs. Bibliogr. 434. In Russian with English Summary and descriptions of figures. Retail price: $30.00 + postage/handling: $5.00 — Registered Surface-Mail, $8.00 — Registered Air Mail. Please, note: there are very limited number of offered copies.

The present monograph is the first detailed study of the Ukrainian fauna of Chitons (3 species) and Gastropods (75 species) which belongs to the subclasses Cyclobranehia, Scutibranchia and Pectinibranchia (part).

The general part includes the description of material and methods, general characters of the phylum Mollusca; morphology, anatomy and conchology peculiarities of mollusks are discussed here, short glossary is given too.

Taxonomic part of the book includes keys to all mentioned taxa from classes to species and their detailed characters. The illustrative descriptions of shell, data on distribution, variation and ecology for all species are presented. A nomenclatural analysis is provided nearly for all species and generic-level names; detailed list of synonyms is given, few new taxa are introduced. A lot of type specimens (including some Linnean's species) are
described and figured; few lectotypes are designated for the first time.

Supplement includes the annotated list of 300+ fossil species of Gastropoda. For hydrobiologist, zoologist and conchologist-amateurs.

Key words: mollusks, chitons, gastropods, fauna, taxonomy, Ukraine.

Summary:The monograph is devoted to the Ukrainian Chitons and Gastropods which have not been studied so far.

The present book is divided into two parts: general and taxonomic. The general part includes the description of material examined and methods of investigation, general characters of the phylum Mollusca; morphology, anatomy and conchology peculiarities of mollusks are discussed here.

Glossary with hundreds of terms used by researchers is given too.

Besides the method of analysis of traditional conchological features we use the method of conchological studies proposed by Ya. I. Starobogatov. The description of this method we have adobted mainly by E. V. Shikov and M. N. Zatravkin (1991) paper. The present acquaintance with this method would help our foreign colleagues to estimate better the validity of taxa revealed by malacologists works in the former USSR countries.

It is known that the contour of the frontal section of a shell valve across its apex (in Bivalvians) or the suture line (in Gastropods) may be considered as a segment of ogarithmic spiral (Moseley, 1838; D'Arcy Tompson, 1917; Raup, 1966, and others). Such spiral has some constant affinities, for instance the angle between radius vector and tangent line drawn into any point of the spiral, so-called "polar angle". It is independent on the length of the spiral and therefore it is unchanged with the molluskan age.

Further it was found that the polar angle is the species-specific characteristic of many families of freshwater mollusks. B. M. Logvinenko and Ya. I. Starobogatov (1971) showed that not only the polar angle of the shell frontal section contours but also the contours
themselves were species-specific. They have proved also that the curvature
of the shell valve frontal section can be used as an important systematic and diagnostic feature. After these works the method of comparing the shell frontal section contours began to be widely used by Ya. I. Starobogatov and his numerous disciples; subsequently this method has been named comparatorial method and applied to gastropods Izzatullaev, Starobogatov, 1984, and many others).

As using the comparatorial method, the shell is drawn with stereoscopic microscopes (MBS, Opton) and with respective drawing apparates (camera lucida). The shell should be placed on the microscope stand on plasticine in strictly standart position. When the shell is placed, the valve (shell) contour is drawn from the very umbo (apex) with the drawing tube. Large shells may be drawn uncompletely but drawing of the frontal section should
be always started from the umbo (apex). The resultant picture is traced with drawing ink or thus, a stencil is obtained which may be used for comparison with other shell contours. If the shell contour of another mollusk does not coincide with the stencil contour, a new stencil should be drawn. Thus mollusks are divided into groups corresponding to one or another stencil contour: the drawing apparatus is used here as comparator.

As it was shown in practice of many years (about 30 years) of using the comparatorial method, the shell groups differing in character of the valve (or the shell contour) curvature always have clear differences also in other morphologic features: the shell form, the main parameter ratios, etc. In result the comparatorial method considerably facilitates the mollusk determination — after dividing the shells into groups, it is very easy to find characteristic morphologic features and to determine the species belonging to every shell group. In all cases when mollusks differing in characters of their shell frontal section curvature or contour and in other features are found together without intermediate forms, we believe it being a sufficient reason to consider mollusks of these forms as separate species.

The popularity of the method is explained by its simpllicity — using it only practically, everybody can divide into conchological groups more than 100 any shells within an hour. It permits us also to compare real shells with photograph or precise drawing of the specimen presented in literature.

The comparatorial method is universal. Unlike other conchologic features the shell frontal section contour can be applied to almost all species of bivalvians and gastropods. It is possible even in the cases when external diagnostic features of species are very limited and when it is very difficult to separate species visually by the shell. The discussed method permits to compare independently all four Raup's parameters and also the fifth: the dimention of the upper base of the truncated cone of shell-tube.

It most applicable to gastropods with conispiral shells where we may see all whorls simultaneously (Izzatullaev, Starobogatov, 1984). This method is also important because linear dimensions and their relations can not adequately express the spiral growth of a shell. On the other hand the method should not be absolutized. In some cases the determination should not be carried out only by comparing the frontal section contours.

These characters should be used together with other features. Consequently, this method is only an eurystic one and in order to prove the species validity we have to use direct or undirect consequences of the biological species concept, i. e. low viability or absence of hybrids, differences in the caryotypes, or absence of transition when two forms coexist together.

In the second (taxonomic) part of the book, attention concentrated on the keys to all mentioned taxa from classes to species and their detailed characters. The present monograph is the first detailed study of the Ukrainian fauna of Chitons (3 species) and Gastropods (75 species) which belongs to the subclasses Cyclobranchia (=Patelliones Golikov et Starobogatov, 1989), Scutibranchia (=Pleurotomariiones Golikov et Starobogatov, 1989) and Pectinibranchia (=Trochiones Golikov et Starobogatov, 1989). The characteristics of subclasses (below) is adobted by A. N. Golikov and Ya. I. tarobogatov (1975) paper.

The Subclass Cyclobranchia.
The shell is primarily symmetrical, without any incision or sulcus, planospiral or cap-like with the apex displaced anteriory, rarely posteriorly.
The head bears one pair of tentacles.
The epipodium is absent.
The mantle complex is primarily symmetrical; in recent cap-like shell forms it is asymmetrical due to the clockwise rotation of the ctenidia and sometimes on account of the presence of the left ctenidium only, of the shift of the heart to the left and of the anus with the nephropores to the right.
The osphradia retain their initially symmetrical position, the right osphradium occasionally disappears, the hypobranchial gland is absent.
The heart has a well-developed left auricle, the right one being rudimentary; the arterial bulbus is present.
There are 2 kidneys, the right kidney being larger and the gonad opening into it (not into its renopericardial duct).
The reproductive system opens by a nephropore, the papilla of the right kidney sometimes continues into a long tube. Occasionally a copulatory apparatus of cephalic origin may also be present. Fertilization is mostly external.
There are 2 pairs of salivary glands.
The radula is docoglossate with many teeth in a transverse row in primitive forms, and a reduced number of teeth (6) in higher forms.
The stomach is divided into 2 parts, is devoid of protostyle, chitinous lining and caecum. The rectum penetrates the pericardium and not the ventricle.
The central nervous system in higher forms has pronounced ganglia; osphradial (branchial) ganglia and mantle nerve cords are present. There is no dialyneury.

The subclass Cyclobranehia within Ukraine is represented by following taxa:
1 order (Patelliformes), 1 family (Patellidae), 1 genus (Patella) and sole species — P. ulyssiponensis Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1791.

The Subclass Scutibranchia.
The shell is either primarily symmetrical, planospiral, often of a cap-like form, or conispiral; on the anterior periphery of the last whorl above the head there is always either an incision or a sulcus that appears as a peripheral keel when viewed from outside. The incision may separate from the peristome, i. e. close to form a foramen and be displaced; in cap-like forms the foramen may become apical.
The head has one pair of tentacles.
The epipodium is well developed and is usially supplied with tentacles.
The mantle complex is symmetrical, except that the right kidney is somewhat larger than the left.
There are always 2 ctenidia in conispiral forms, the left always being larger than the right. The gonad opens into the right renopericardial duct and rarely into the right kidney.
A copulatory apparatus is always absent. Fertilization is external.
There is one pair of small salivary glands, located in the head.
The rhipidoglossate radula is supplied with a great number of teeth.
The stomach has a caecum, a protostyle and a chitinous lining. The rectum runs
through the pericardium and the ventricle.
The central nervous system has no prominent ganglia; branchial ganglia are present, but no mantle nerve cords.

The subclass Scutibranchia (includes 2 species in Ukraine) is represented by order Pleurotomariiformes and 2 families: Fissurellidae (genus Diodora) and Scissurellidae (genus Scissurella).

The Subclass Pectinibranchia.
The shell is initially conispiral, sometimes with a secondary simplification, cap-like, tube-like or planospiral, always without an incision.
The head bears one pair of tentacles and sometimes has one pair of frontal lobes.
The epipodium is only slightly developed, often completely absent.
The mantle complex is sharply asymmetrical.
The ctenidium and osphradium are unpaired.
The hypobranchial glands are paired, but very unequal, or more often single.
Only one auricle is functional, corresponding to the only one ctenidium; the other is rudimentary or completely reduced.
There are 2 kidneys, the right (in dextral forms) is larger than the left; the gonad opening into the renopericardial duet, or the kidney may be completely incorporated in the reproductive system as the renal gonoduct.
The reproductive system debouches either by the nephropore or continues further into the pallial gonoduct; a copulatory apparatus may also be present, arising either from the head or the foot. Fertilization is external or, more often, internal.
There are 1 or 2 pairs of salivary glands, they are mostly large and situated behind the nerve ring.
The radula may be rhipidoglossate, consisting of a large number of rather homogeneous teeth, or it may have a smaller number of teeth per transverse row (7, 3, 2 or even 1).
The stomach with or without the caecum, and often has a protostyle or crystalline style. The rectum either penetrates the pericardium and the ventricle, or runs at a distance from these organs.
The central nervous system has well developed and well pronounced ganglia. The lowest forms have the left branchial ganglion and show dialyneury, in the highest forms these
features absent. There are no mantle nerve cords.

The subclass Pectinibranchia is devided at all into 15 orders. Four from which are described here. They are following: order Trochiformes — 3 families: Phasianellidae (1 genus, 5 species), Trochidae (3 genera, 4 species), Calliostomatidae (2 genera, 2 species); order Neritopsiformes — 1 family (Neritidae, 1 genus, 7 species); order Vivipariformes — 3 families: Pomatiidae (1 genus, 2 species), Viviparidae (2 genera, 9 species), Valvatidae (3 genera, 25 species); order Cerithiiformes — 4 families: Melanopsidae (3 genera, 7 species), Litiopidae (1 genus, 2 species), Cerithiidae (2 genera, 6 species), Cerithiopsidae (1 genus, 3 species).

The illustrative descriptions of shell with details of the classification, identification, distribution, variation and ecology for all species of mentioned taxa are presented.

A nomenclatural analysis is provided nearly for all species and generic-level names, detailed list of synonyms is given.

Few new names are introduced: class Chitoniodes V. Anistratenko nom. n. pro Polyplaeophora Blainville, 1816, subclass Chelodiones V. Anistratenko nom. n. pro Paleoloricata Bergenhayn, 1955, subclass Chitoniones V. Anistratenko nom. n. pro Loricata Schumacher, 1817 (=Neoloricata Bergenhayn, 1955). The replacement name within family Valvatidae is proposed by Ya. I. Starobogatov — Cincinna (Cincinna) falsifluviatilis Starobogatov nom. n. pro Valvata fluviatilisWesterlund, 1886 non Colbeau, 1868.

A lot of type specimens are described and figured: Tricolia milaschewitchi Anistratenko et Starobogatov, 1991 (holotype), Steromphala crimeana Anistratenko et Starobogatov, 1991 (holotype), Theodoxus astrachanicus Starobogatov in Starobogatov, Filchakov, Antonova et Pirogov, 1994 (holotype), Theodoxus velox V. Anistratenko in 0. Anistratenko, Starobogatov et V. Anistratenko, 1999 (holotype), Viviparus (Haviyipaludina) rossmaessleri (Bourguignat, 1880) (syntype), Borysthenia menkeana (Jelski, 1863) (lectotype), Boryslhenia alligans (Lindholm, 1927) (holotype), Cincinna (Cincinna} dilatata (Eichwald, 1830) (lectotype), Cincinna (Cincinna) chersonica Chernogorenko et Starobogatov, 1987 (holotype), Fagotia (Dneprifagotia) dneprensis Starobogatov, Alexenko et Levina, 1992 (holotype), Micmcolpia (Potamoctebiana) ucrainica Starobogatov, Alexenko et Levina, 1992 (holotype).
The lectotypes of two Linnean's species are also described and figured: Nerita fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 (lectotype) and Helix vivipara Linnaeus, 1758 (lectotype). At last the lectotypes of few species are designated here for the first time: Turbo pullus Linnaeus, 1758, Trochus divaricatus Linnaeus, 1758 and Turritella pusilla Jeffreys, 1856.

Supplement includes the annotated list of more than 300 fossil species of

Roman V. Egorov
3rd Vladimirskaya str., 16-24
111401 Moscow RUSSIA




"Mitridae Costellariidae", by Alain Robin & Jean-Claude Martyn.
An hardbound A4 size publication with a very attractive cover. It has 32 full color plates with usually 2 or more sharp illustrations of each species. Minimal text (only about 34 pages) give the species name and author, range, maximum size and a very good synonymy. This book will be a great help in working with this difficult family. It is the first full treatment of these shells since the early 1970's and it far surpasses anything on them done to date.

"Olividae: A Collectors Guide", by Günther H. W. Sterba.
Here is another brand new book that deserves a close look. While it is a lot less detailed than the Tursch, et al book "Olivia" it is a terrific guide to the quick identification and characteristics of the shells that make up this often complicated family. Text has a well written introduction and is otherwise quite basic giving the relevant information that will help with the identification of each of these species. Book is a hardcover, A4 size and contains 172 pages including 62 full size color plates. One of the things that I most like about this book is that (like Tursch) it displays a great number of variations that can be found in each of these shells. It also treats the other genera such as Amalda and Ancilla, etc. that are a part of this family. Information on these groups that are outside the Genus Oliva is often hard to find. The book is a revision and expansion and English translation of a work first printed in 1972 by Streba. I think that collectors will be delighted that this work is now available in English translation.


New Book 2004
I am glad to inform you about publication of my book "Diagnosing cowry species."

This book is designed to be an easy-to-use manual that enables malacologists and shell collectors to identify cowries using shell characters only.

Shell characters of 268 cowry taxa, which have been described as extant species, are compared. A criterion is established and all the 268 taxa are critically examined according to this criterion: each cowry species must be distinguished from other species of Cypraeidae by at least one well-recognizable shell character—Main Diagnostic Shell Character (MDSC)—that shows no intermediate stages

Following the above criterion it was possible to diagnose 211 cowry species, 14 subspecies and 19 synonyms.

The remaining 24 taxa refer either to rare shells not available for study or to populations, the descriptive shell characters of which are not yet established. These taxa should be re-examined in order to come to satisfactory conclusion as to their status i.e. species, subspecies or synonym.

To allow for easy comparison, color illustrations and the main diagnostic characters for shells of the defineable taxa that are similar to each other are given on the same page.

Additional information which may provide extra clues for distinguishing between species of similar appearence includes: notes to supplement the main diagnostic characters; discussion of several groups of cowry taxa, which are especially difficult to tell apart; a list of genera in Cypraeidae and the distribution range of taxa with similar shells.

160 A4 pages, soft cover, color illustrations on 48 plates, numerous b/w illustrations.

Purchasing Information:
My new book costs 75$, postage 15$ by airmail, 5$ by surface mail.

E. L. Heiman
P.O.Box 664
Rehovot 76100, Israel


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